Kobayashi season ticket 3
Concerts are made special by the personalities of the performers. The world-famous Dutch organist and conductor Ton Koopman is one of the leading lights of a movement that promotes the authentic performance of early music. Gábor Tarkövi is the principal trumpet player of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and a teacher at the Karajan Academy. Mozart composed Symphony No. 19 aged 16 and that work was also special for its use of four horns with a uniquely high pitch. Haydn’s trumpet concerto was the master’s final concerto. He composed the piece in 1796, when the valve trumpet was still considered an innovation. Haydn’s influence can be felt in Beethoven’s Symphony No. 2, though it also features the impressive power that would characterise Beethoven’s later work. It is music that shines with serenity and optimism, something made all the more remarkable by the knowledge that its creation coincided with the famous Heiligenstadt Testament, in which the composer bade farewell to the world and confessed his irreversible deafness.
Az 1772. év igen termékenynek bizonyult a még Salzburgban élő W. A. Mozart (1756–1791) pályáján: egyebek mellett nyolc szimfóniát, további hangszeres darabok és egyházi művek sorát alkotta meg akkor az ifjú géniusz. Ezek közül való az összetett stílusvilágú Esz-dúr szimfónia (K. 132.), melyben az általános olasz, francia és délnémet–osztrák hagyomány nyomain túl Johann Christian Bach, Matthias Georg Monn és Joseph Haydn hatása is érvényre jut, de az érett Mozart nagyságrendje is megmutatkozik már. Négytételes szimfóniájához két oboát, négy kürtöt és vonósokat írt elő a komponista. A kor zenéjének alaptulajdonságai közé tartoztak a hangnemekhez kötődő, többé-kevésbé állandó karaktertípusok. Jellegzetes példája ennek, ahogy az Esz-dúr szimfónia zenei folyamatának megannyi rokonára ismerhetünk Mozart későbbi, azonos tonalitású műveiben; a határozott nyitó gesztus konkrétan vissza is tér majd a K. 297b Sinfonia concertante, valamint a K. 482. Zongoraverseny élén. Szellemességekben, színpademlékű buffo-elemekben gazdag kezdet az olaszos, nyitó Allegro. Kétfajta lassútételt komponált Mozart a darabhoz, egyaránt B-dúrban, Andante grazioso és Andante feliratokkal; a mai hangversenyen mindkettő fölhangzik. Az ismét Esz-dúr hangnemű, visszatéréses Menuetto szélső szakaszai imitációlánc nyomán, kamarazeneszerűen bontakoznak ki. Ütemeiket mégis osztrákos-népies hang uralja el fokozatosan, majd ennek kontrasztjaképpen a csak vonósok által játszott, még kamarazeneibb hatású, középső Trio bensőséges, mély értelmű muzsika. S habár típusa szerint francia hagyományra tekintő – gavotte-lüktetésű – tánctémára épül a rondószerkezetű Allegro-finálé, zenéje szintúgy félrehallhatatlanul bécsies kedéllyel áramlik tova.
Times change and musical instruments change with them. The trumpet, for instance, had originally been able to play only notes of the natural overtone series. In the Baroque era, a special technique existed to make the most of this situation. The overtones are closer together in the second octave than they are in the first; in fact, after the seventh overtone, they more or less add up to a complete scale. The special technique consisted in developing the player’s skills at playing in the high register (known as the “clarino”) register. Yet in the Classical period this was no longer sufficient; in fact, the need arose to fill out the gaps in the instrument’s lower range and to provide it with a full chromatic scale in all registers. (more…)
I. Adagio molto – Allegro con brio II. Larghetto III. Scherzo. Allegro IV. Finale. Allegro molto
Beethoven composed his Symphony no. 2 in 1801-1802. It was premiered at the Theater an der Wien on April 5th 1803 at Beethoven’s second major “composer’s evening.”. Beethoven himself conducted. “Everywhere, we see the second symphony linked to the famous Heiligenstad Testament completed on October 6th 1802, that documention of an outburst of personal despair. And yet the music of the symphony is diametrically opposed to every kind of desperation: it is characterised by youthful fiery power and life affirming energy. How can we explain this contradiction? Is it possible that it was the same Beethoven who composed the Second Symphony and yet in October 1802, was on the brink of suicide as he put his desperate thoughts down on paper?” The question was framed by Dénes Bartha. He was not satisfied with the explanation that the Second Symphony is a kind of heroic lie, a denial of the testament in which Beethoven overcomes the depression caused by his deafness through a desperate effort. In the opinion of Bartha, Beethoven does not undertake the heroic triumph over the demons of illness in the Symphony no. 2 but in the next work, the Eroica.
The Second Symphony is a giant step forward. By contrast with the First Symphony, Beethoven is bold and experimental, he again launches the first movement with a slow introduction but by contrast with the earlier work, this Adagio is much more significant and weighty. Among the themes expounded is a characteristic one in the minor which foreshadows the opening movement of the Ninth Symphony. This thematic idea crops up several times in the principal section of the movement: Beethoven creates the closing theme of the exposition from it in such a way as to link with the principal theme; besides this it also plays an important role in the development. The concentration and dimensions of the movement anticipate the world of the Eroica.
The slow movement, marked Larghetto, presents one of the longest and most poetic of Beethoven’s melodies and is prodigal in its supply of material. “My first works were not printed for some time after I wrote them; when I looked at my first manuscripts a few years later, I asked myself if I wasn’t perhaps mad, having boiled down so much into a single work which would have been sufficient for 20 different pieces.“
The Third Movement is one of the most daring works Beethoven wrote in this period. Its importance is multiplied because it is the first such work he labels as a scherzo. The finale was the least traditional and for his contemporaries, the hardest to grasp of all the movements. According to a journalist at the time “the entire symphony is like a wounded convulsing dragon which does not want to die and in the finale, in its final throes, lashes out madly with its tail.“